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Franklin's Kite Experiment

“Helium discovered on March 26, 1895, by Scottish Sir William Ramsay. He isolated it from the mineral cleveite which is a variety of uraninite. In every case where helium has been isolated, a radioactive substance has also been found in the mineral. The assumption has therefore been made that, since radium is continually changing into helium, where there is helium there is still, or must have been, radium; hence the obvious suggestion has been made that there is radium in the sun, and even that it plays a large part in the solar radiation. It has been calculated that 3.6 grams of radium per square meter of the sun’s surface would amply suffice to supply all the heat the sun radiates. This throws a new light upon the age of the sun. Lord Kelvin, basing his arguments upon the consideration that the sun is a slowly cooling white-hot body, stated that it could not possibly be more than 20 million years old. Geologists, to account for the deposition of continents and the period of elevation, demanded at least 100 million years. The discovery of radium has thrown quite a new light upon the question. If the solar radiation is due either entirely, or in part, to the presence of radioactive bodies in the sun, it may be considerably older than was before considered possible by the physicist. The idea may occur that as radium gives off rays which are harmful to man, would the presence of so large a quantity of radium in the sun be detrimental, if not fatal, to life on the earth? Strutt and Joly have considered the problem from a mathematical point of view, both coming to the conclusion that it is very improbable that any of the radium rays could reach us at our great distance from the sun. Plausible explanations can be given of the earth’s electricity and magnetism on the assumption that the sun’s radiation is due wholly, or in part, to the presence of radium. It has long been known that the higher regions of the earth’s atmosphere are at a higher potential than the lower. What this means is that the electricity of the higher regions is positive compared to that of the lower regions. If the sun’s radiation is due to radium, the alpha radiation, proceeding towards the earth, would be absorbed by the outer layers of the earth’s atmosphere, thus charging them with positive electricity. The beta radiation, being much more penetrative, would not be absorbed nearly so easily, and might reach the lower layers and the earth itself. This would account for the negative potential of the lower layers of the atmosphere and of the earth. It has been experimentally shown that at night time the potential difference between the upper and lower regions is considerably less than in daytime. Up to mid-day the outer layers of the air have been absorbing the alpha rays, while the beta radiation has mostly passed through. This accumulation of positive electricity stops to a much greater extent the negatively charged beta rays. A maximum effect is, therefore, produced about mid-day. The charges will be gradually dissipated as evening approaches, so that the potential difference diminishes. Looking down upon the earth above the north Geographical pole, the direction of rotation is counterclockwise. If the negatively charged particles in the lower regions of the atmosphere are carried round by the diurnal rotation, a magnetic field is thus established with the south pole in the position of the north geographical pole, and vice versa. It is well known that magnetic storms on the earth occur at periods of maximum sun-spot activity. This may be explained by the greater activity of the sun causing it to project electrons at a maximum rate towards the earth at such periods.”

Since the time of Benjamin Franklin’s famous kite experiments not much has been learned about the nature of electrical charge and how to convert it into useful power. Certain people have discussed this to some extent. Some theoretical papers in the so-called “free energy” field have been written. Many of these theorists will even consider that ionizing particles can be utilized to produce usable amounts of electrical power. Nevertheless, I have taken it upon myself, with great personal conviction, to find a solution to converting charged particles that are stored within the Earth’s Atmosphere into useful electrical power. I have found with the correct circuits and components, that ions can be efficiently transformed into useful electrical currents. It is my desire to be able to furnish irrefutable proof of this discovery. To begin this journey, scientists and researchers alike will have to snap out of their state of denial. The utilization of ionizing energy on completely new ground has to take place. The production and utilization of energy obtained from natural sources for the well being of humankind has been the goal of scholars and researchers for many years now. However, the implementation of a practical working device has remained only a pious desire. This is because well intentioned researchers turn away from the simple fact that there is free electricity to be obtained from the planets storehouse of ions. When large enough quantities of atmospheric ions are collected they can be converted into useful electrical power. Many researchers after investigating atmospheric electricity become astonished when they realize that it is a source that can be converted into useful electrical power and that it has been right under their noses all along.

Plauson's System of Electrical Power Generation

When the study of meteorology first began there was a big interest in atmospheric electricity. Many in this field thought to use it. This is revealed through the patents of the time. The first relevant patent was granted to inventor Dr. Heinrich Rudolph of St. Goarshausen, according to the German Patent Office; D.R.P. No. 98180 January 19, 1897.Hermann Plauson was successful in converting atmospheric energy into useful electrical currents. He was granted a patent titled “Conversion of Atmospheric Electric Energy” U.S. Patent No. 1,540,998. In his patent he states, “St. Elmo’s fire and the northern lights can be more or less absorbed in the same way as a receiver in wireless telegraphy absorbs waves coming from a far distance.” It contains the foundation to building a powerful ion energy receiving and power conversion device.

Benjamin Franklin in America made a few attempts to utilize static electricity obtained from the atmosphere. He once built a motor that implied a commercially significant amount of energy might be derived from the atmosphere of the earth. It has been observed that an average potential gradient of 150 volts per meter of height is always available.

Early Electrostatic Motor

There are three major causes of atmospheric ionization. The first one is due to the cosmic rays and the second cause is due to the solar winds. Over 95% of the particles in the solar wind are electrons and protons, in roughly equal numbers. Almost all of these high-energy particles interact with the earth’s upper atmosphere causing it to become ionized. This is why the upper atmosphere is called the ionosphere. However, the area where the reaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere takes place is far outside of the earth’s atmosphere. The charged solar wind particles rattle the magnetic cage of our planet long before its gas envelope neutralizes them. The third cause of atmospheric ionization is due to the content of radioactive gas contained in the air that we breathe. In the ground radioactive substances such as radium, thorium, and actinium are spread throughout the soil. These elements generate gaseous radioactive emanations that spread in the air and ionize its molecules. The actinium-emanation generated from the decay of U235 plays a major role because of its brief radioactive half-life of only 3.9 seconds. Air, a mixture of gases, is largely composed of nitrogen and oxygen. It is generally considered as an insulator, and would be an excellent one if all the oxygen and nitrogen molecules were in the neutral state. However, the air is actually composed of varying quantities of neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. As the number of ions in the air is increased, the air becomes a progressively better conductor. In general, gradually more ions are found the higher we ascend until, at about a height of forty to fifty miles, a region called the ionosphere is reached. Here, there are sufficient numbers of ions to reflect radio waves. The ionosphere, although conductive, can be considered as a whole as being uncharged. This is due to the number of positive ions being equal to the number of negative ions plus electrons that are distributed in layers varying in height and in degree of ionization. In contrast, the earth has a surplus of electrons and is actually about 300,000 to 400,000 volts negative with respect to the ionosphere. This potential difference together with the total conductive qualities of the atmosphere is sufficient to cause the earth to continually lose electrons to the ionsphere. The entire earth’s surface and the ionosphere may be considered to be oppositely-charged plates of a vast capacitor with the air between them acting as a rather inferior insulator, for it leaks continuously. In addition to the presence of ions, which make the atmosphere slightly conductive, various meteorological processes called precipitation or hydrologic cycle, contribute to the leakage rate of this earth capacitor. Falling rain tends to bring down the less-mobile large ions toward the earth while electrons are carried upwards on rising moisture-laden air. This steady loss of electrons from the earth is called ionic current, and, infinitesimal as it is, it has been measured and amounts to about 9 micro amps for every square mile of the earth’s surface. This current flows from the earth via the most convenient conductive path or those offering the least electrical resistance. Most of the electrons are discharged at natural and man made points that project into the atmosphere. Static discharge can also occur when electrically charged particles (raindrops, snow, dust, etc.) strike the antenna of a radio receiver, inducing a current impulse in the associated circuitry and thereby producing broadband radio frequency noise.

Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart

In the “Origin of Lightning,” Lockheed Service Digest Professor Langley showed that out of the total amount of radiation coming the sun, that the visible portion represents only 19% of the total spectrum. He presented the theory that there is only one kind of energy radiated from sunlight. That, heat, and chemical effects depend entirely upon the state or condition which radiant energy may happen to fall on matter.

The Italian physicist Melloni stated that, “light is merely a series of caloric indications sensible to the organs of sight, or vice versa, the radiation of obscure heat are veritable invisible radiation of light.” Melloni wrote this in 1843, but it was not adopted until Langley by his elaborate researches, more refined and complex, that proved it. The great physicists of society then adopted the doctrine of one “radiant energy.” Only a few researchers know that the immediate effect of the discharge and neutralization of charged partcles is electromagnetic energy. The results of two centuries of observation all point to this conclusion. I call this science radioionics.

When a mighty tongue of white-hot matter darts across the abyss of a large spot or cavern on the sun, the equilibrium of the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed and the effect is an electromagnetic storm. The needle of any magnetograph throughout the world will quiver and oscillate. These vibrations pass from the sun to the surface of our planet that is closest to it. These impulses then pass to the most distant side, whether through or around the planet’s surface. After centuries of investigation from Gilbert to Tesla, this most wonderful research still holds admiration and mystery for all that study this vast science; electrodynamics. Power is cut out of the seemingly emptiness of space, and the hurrying waves are caught and chained to servitude in artificial light and electric appliances. The sun, being electromagnetic, emits waves that carry power, which beat and surge against the earth. A magnetic field is space that surrounds a magnet. This space might be filled with air, wood, stone, glass, or might be a vacuum. Nevertheless, the waves are not quenched. They flow through all of these things. A freely suspended magnet in a magnetic field will move, and the earth’s surface is surrounded by a magnetic field, that is acted upon by the sun’s magnetic field. Suspend a sewing needle by a silk fibre in the earth’s magnetic field and it will come to rest parallel to the field’s north and south poles. Now, if this field becomes disturbed, that is, if it becomes stronger or weaker, the needle will move. This is a magnetic storm. When a gas jet is hurled across a spot on the sun, the disturbance reaches the earth in the same time that light does. Therefore, the radiance travels at 186,000 miles per second reaching the earth in eight minutes and nineteen seconds.

The most memorable magnetic storm occurred on November 17, 1882. This was one of the most violent recorded. The daily press was burdened with accounts of widespread magnetic disturbance. In some places telegraphic communication was suspended. The turbulence stretched from New York to Yankton, Nashville, and Winnipeg. In Milwaukee, the carbons in the electric lamps were lighted, rendered incandescent by currents of electricity flowing on the wires. At other locations, switchboards in telegraph offices were set on fire and sending keys were melted, while electric balls were seen hovering on the telegraph lines in Nebraska. The earth’s aurora holds the key to harnessing the sun’s daily pulsation. An aurora is the visible effect of obscure undulations from the sun, as they come dashing on the earth with a speed of 186,000 miles per second. In a six-month winter, say at the North Pole of the earth, where the sun is far south of the equator, and none of its rays can shine on the earth’s northern pole, the aurora is very bright. It displays many colours, and these flash and glow with rapid variations. The light, although caused by the sun, does not come direct. It is caused by the turbulence set up in the earth’s magnetic field by electromagnetic upheaval on the sun. The field of the earth is “tuned” with the sun’s field, as was the coherer in the days of wireless telegraphy and telephony. The aurora is known to be electrical, magnets and compass needles on ships are always affected. Could the coherer of the days of old teach us something new?

No magnet can be placed near a “current” of electricity or a static charge without making an oscillation. Every oscillation sends out a wave, like a stone falling in water. An electromagnetic wave from the sun disturbs the earth’s magnetic field in the same way that an induction coil used in wireless telegraphy does. The earth and coherer are both doing the same thing with the same kind of electromagnetic waves. The coherer in a distant receiving station will react to natural electromagnetic wave fronts from the sun. It will likewise react to the artificial wave fronts coming from the induction coil. The electromagnetic wave makes the loose particles of metal between the knobs in the glass tube coherer generate dots and dashes. It is said that there is enough energy coming to the Earth to light 1,193,600 one hundred-watt lamps for every human being alive today. No fuel of any kind will be taken. Energy can be picked directly by great ocean liners, railroads, airplanes, automobiles or any form of transportation. In addition, heat, light and power can be available for use in all kinds of buildings.” On page 303 in “Astronomy” by Robert H. Baker, P.H. D. Professor of Astronomy, at the University of Illinois: Another problem relates to the apparent lavish expenditure of this radiation. Of all the energy that pours forth from the sun, the planets and their satellites intercept less than one part in 200 million. The remainder spreads through interstellar space with little chance, so far as we know, of being recovered. The suggestion that the sun shines only in the direction of material that can intercept it may appeal from the point of view of economy, but appears to have little else to recommend it. It would seem that Nature is squandering its resources of energy so prodigally that it must end in bankruptcy. But, we doubtless have at present, an imperfect account of the situation. In the “Physical Review,” Dr. Gunn of the U. S. Navy Research Laboratories states that the earth itself is a huge dynamo, producing 200,000,000 amperes of electrical current. For more detail, read pages 334 - 344, “Physical Review,” July 15, 1939.

Auroral Display

The Aurora Borealis is definately considered an electrical phenomenon produced by the passage of electric charges through the rarefied gases of the upper atmosphere. Similar to the reception of radio waves, an radioionic energy device can be tuned into resonance by the right arrangement of inductance and capacities. The components respond to the particular wave frequency “oscillations” of energy from the Planet. An ion valve dams the charge coming from the antenna and charges a bank of capacitors. The high voltage charge thus obtained can be stepped down into useful electrical power utilizing conventional electrical circuits. All that is necessary to put the device into operation is to start electric oscillations in the circuit. This is accomplished by inducing a surge of high potential between the antenna and ground connection of the device, which charges high voltage capacitors within its circuitry. A publication by the Center for Academic Publication in Tokyo, Japan, Magnetospheric Plasma Physics, edited by Atsuhiro Nishida, brings together some prominent world physicists for a very clear picture of the Earth energy structure, along with some rather complex mathematics for those wishing to follow their modeling. The conducting ionosphere can affect the instability by short circuiting the electrostatic part of the Earth electric field, thus requiring less energy to release charge from the upper layers. These auroral arcs result in an acceleration process called ring currents, processing along the magnetic field lines that connect the magneto tail with the ionosphere. This is the primary supply of planetary ionic energy for what is seen as the “aurora,” setting up an oscillating field of ionized particles; therefore forming the aurora light display. This process releases a radiation that I call Radioionic Radiation (RIR) from about 17 to 500 KHz. The light display is generated by ion convection currents that are formed in the plasma energy field of the magneto tail. These ion convention currents curve toward the Earth on the night side and enter or create the aurora light display at around 68 degrees latitude between 22 and 24 hours local time. The RIR has a frequency spectrum from around 17 to about 500 KHz., with a peak power at around 200 KHz. The total power is about 1,000 Megawatts. It originates at a low altitude, with a power factor of about one per cent of the energy dissipation of the auroral ion particle streams. It appears that the on rushing ionizing particles excites the ionosphere, thereby generating powerful RIR energies. Very strong electrostatic convention currents have been observed, between 17.8 and 100 KHz. with the greatest amplitude at around 31.1 KHz. Some of these same frequencies have been observed by the Voyager II when it passed through the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn.

The earth floats in a sea of ions that are forever present in its atmosphere. They are mostly generated when ultraviolet light coming from the Sun is absorbed in the ionosphere which surrounds our planet. To capture these ions an opposite polarity must be applied to one lead of an electrical capacitor. The electrostatic potential difference (high voltage) which is stored between the capacitor plates must be transformed into a suitable form of electricity because our electrical appliances aren’t designed to function on this form of energy. They cannot be powered with electrostatic energy. They require electromagnetic energy to function. At the beginning of the radio age electrically semiconducting crystal materials (detectors) were used to convert an artificially generated high frequency, oscillating, electromagnetic energy (radio energy), into a current that flowed only in one direction. This was done because a sound reproducer (speaker) only responds to an electrical current that flows in one direction. Radio crystal detectors were the subject of an intense search to find a crystal that would provide the best results. Many thousands of radio amateurs tested numerous materials in different circuits and configurations. It was found that a single crystal of “steel galena” offered the best results over all other crystals, a fact that holds true to this day. Radio crystals convert high frequency electromagnetic oscillating electrons into an electrical (electrons that are travelling through a conductor of electricity) current that flows in one direction through an electrical conductor, such as a copper wire. However, it cannot influence high frequency electrostatic oscillating ions to travel in one direction through an electrically conductive copper wire. This is the reason why ions haven’t been revealed to be an energy source. No means were known to directly or to indirectly convert electrostatic (“static”) energy into electromagnetic energy (electricity).

 

DIRECT ELECTRICAL POWER

From the utilization of renewable ions

 

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